Expressivity and penetrance

Expressivity on the other hand refers to variation in phenotypic expression when an allele is penetrant. Back to the polydactyly example, an extra digit may occur on one or more appendages. The digit can be full size or just a stub. Hence, this allele has reduced penetrance as well as variable expressivity

14.2: Penetrance and Expressivity - Biology LibreText

If expressivity and penetrance both vary [right], there may be a continuous gradient of phenotypes between white and blue eggs. Note that lack of penetrance can be considered as an extreme from of expressivity, in which the range of expression includes non-expression

Reading: Penetrance and Expressivity Biology

  1. The key difference between penetrance and expressivity is that the penetrance refers to the proportion of genotypes that actually show expected phenotypes in a population while the expressivity is the degree to which trait expression differs among individuals. Penetrance and expressivity are two terms very commonly used in genetic analysis
  2. ant genotype whereas expressivity is the extent of a given genotype expressed at the phenotypic level
  3. The main difference between penetrance and expressivity is that penetrance is a quantitative measurement, describing the levels of expression of a particular phenotype, which corresponds t
  4. While penetrance is a quantitative measurement that can be used to calculate disease risk, expressivity is a qualitative measurement that is not used to assess disease risk. Many human genetic conditions and diseases have penetrance and expressivity, which really illustrates that gene expression is complex and involves many factors
  5. Penetrance and Expressivity. The terms penetrance and expressivity are also useful to describe the relationship between certain genotypes and their phenotypes. Penetrance is the proportion of individuals (usually expressed as a percentage) with a particular genotype that display a corresponding phenotype. For example, all pea plants that are.
  6. ants, il peut également exister des types d'héritage compliqués. Lorsque les allèles do

Reduced penetrance and variable expressivity are factors that influence the effects of particular genetic changes. These factors usually affect disorders that have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, although they are occasionally seen in disorders with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Reduced penetrance Penetrance is used to describe whether or not there is a clinical expression of the genotype in the individual. Expressivity is the term that describes the differences observed in the clinical.. Video explaining Penetrance and Expressivity for Genetics. This is one of many videos provided by Clutch Prep to prepare you to succeed in your college classes

Penetrance vs Expressivity - Memorial Universit

Difference Between Penetrance and Expressivity

Difference Between Penetrance and Expressivity Compare

Inheritance of Single-Gene Disorders - Fundamentals

This video explains penetrance and expressivity. At 0:24, penetrance is explained with an example and at 6:45, expressivity is explained with an example.----.. The distinction between penetrance and expressivity is illustrated in Figure 3.3, and variable expression of coat colour in dogs is shown in Figure 3.4. Fig. 3.3. Effects of penetrance and expressivity on a hypothetical trait 'pigment intensity'. In each row all individuals have same genotype Penetrance is considered incomplete if some people have a particular gene variant that is known to be associated with a disease, yet they never get the disease. Complete penetrance, on the other hand, is when everyone who carries a particular gene variant develops the disease Penetrance je měření, které lze statisticky stanovit, zatímco expresivitu nelze statisticky stanovit. Příčiny; Penetrance může být způsobena faktory, jako jsou epistatické geny, modifikující geny, supresorové geny a případně faktory prostředí

Difference Between Penetrance and Expressivity

  1. Co je Penetrance? Definice penetrance: Penetrace může být definována jako podíl populace jedinců, kteří mají specifickou formu genu, alelu, která může být fenotypicky exprimována. Výzkum genetické penetrace je užitečný, protože může poskytnout nějakou představu o pravděpodobnosti, že někdo vyvin
  2. Reduced (incomplete) penetrance and variable expressivity relate to the symptoms that an individual with a genetic condition, including NF1, experience in their lifetime. In this context, penetrance refers to how many people with a disease causing gene change show clinical features of the condition (look to be affected)
  3. Penetrance and Expressivity Describe How Genes Are Expressed as Phenotype • Penetrance: percentage of individuals having a particular genotype that express the expected phenotype • Measures how often the phenotype occurs • Expressivity: the degree to which a character is expressed • Measures the intensity of the phenotype • Both.
  4. Expressivity used in reference to a gene that is not expressed uniformly in a population. associated phenotypes are extremely variable. What will the phenotype of a population look like with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity
  5. ant allele who also.

Expressivity and penetrance are two different things. Penetrance is a measure of the likelihood that an animal with a given allele undergoes a non-zero change compared to wild-type, whereas expressivity denotes the probability that a specific phenotype exists in an animal with a given allel Différence principale - Penetrance vs Expressivity . Bien que certains types d'hérédité en génétique soient aussi simples que des conditions autosomiques dominantes, il peut également y avoir des types d'hérédité compliqués The penetrance and expressivity of the dominant preventer alleles Apv and Ppv should be complete in sexual plants. The homozygous recessive alleles apv and ppv tolerate but do not induce apomeiosis or parthenogenesis, respectively (low expressivity). In sexual species,.

(PDF) Difference Between Penetrance and Expressivit

  1. ada enquanto a expressividade não pode ser estatisticamente deter
  2. By definition, disease penetrance represents the probability that individuals who harbor the same disease-causative mutation manifest the objective clinical/phenotypic features associated with that disorder (Fig 1, A and B). 3 In contrast, variable expressivity is defined as the type and severity of clinical/phenotypic features observed across all genotype-positive individuals who harbor the.
  3. Describe two similarities and two differences between incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Expert Answer. Who are the experts? Experts are tested by Chegg as specialists in their subject area. We review their content and use your feedback to keep the quality high
  4. antnej alely nachádzame spektrum morfologických odchyliek (príklad: polydaktýlia − od kožnej riasy až po viac funkčných prstov). Popisuje mieru vyjadrenia daného genotypu vo fenotype
  5. Estimates of penetrance and expressivity traditionally have been derived from studies focusing on individuals with a given condition and their family members; this approach suffers from ascertainment bias, since the proband, who came to clinical attention due to having the condition, may share other genetic and/or environmental factors.
  6. These features of penetrance and expressivity make genetic counseling as much an art as a science, even given the certainty of genetic screening. It is also a great reason why genetic testing favors the nuanced interpretation by well-trained veterinary teams to properly counsel pet owners on the benefits of personalized medicine and the goal of.
Gene interaction ppt

Penetrance describes the frequency of a gene's expression:. Penetrance refers to the proportion of people with a particular genetic change (such as a mutation in a specific gene) who exhibit signs and symptoms of a genetic disorder.Genetics Home Referenc Complete penetrance is the scientific term for when the presence of a gene always results in disease. One example of complete penetrance is the condition neurofibromatosis type 1. This means that 100 percent of people who have the genetic mutation associated with the disease show its symptoms. Another example is a certain mutation of a. For those with a variant, symptoms can range from severe, moderate, or might not even be noticeable. This is called variable expressivity. Food selection is clearly an environmental exposure that can be controlled, and works with genetic variants to affect both penetrance and expressivity, which is the focus of Food Genes and Me

Introduction. One of the ongoing challenges in genetic medicine is that of variant interpretation. Many variants and genes have been erroneously associated with disease as a result of study design problems (including ascertainment bias and inadequate cohort size),1, 2, 3 as well as biological phenomena such as genetic heterogeneity, reduced penetrance, variable expressivity, composite. Incomplete dominance, leakage, penetrance, expressivity. Incomplete dominance is a form of inheritance when two different alleles express a new allele as an offspring; leakage is the gene movement from one species to another; penetrance refers to the probability of a gene or trait being expressed, while expressivity determines how well genes. variable) penetrance if, despite the dominant allele being present, the phenotype was absent in some individuals but present in others. Where the phenotype occurred but varied in degree between individuals, this was termed variable expressivity [1]. (Here we will refer to both as incomplete penetrance). To add to this, discordancy of phenotype wa Environmental conditions control expressivity to a large extent and penetrance to a low extent. Restoration of functional potassium transport by heterologous expression of K(+) transporters from Neurospora crassa abolishes or strongly diminishes the growth impairment. These data show that incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity can be. ความแตกต่างหลัก - Penetrance vs Expressivity. แม้ว่าการถ่ายทอดทางพันธุกรรมบางประเภทในพันธุศาสตร์นั้นง่ายเหมือนเงื่อนไขการปกครองแบบ autosomal แต่ก็อาจมีการ.

View Penetrance And Expressivity PPTs online, safely and virus-free! Many are downloadable. Learn new and interesting things. Get ideas for your own presentations. Share yours for free Variability in penetrance and expressivity. Variability in the penetrance and expressivity of a mutation has been classically attributed to variability in genetic background. In twist-null mice the duplicated hallux/cranial phenotype was progressively lost, while facial asymmetry was more frequently observed as we progressed from a C57/Bl6. penetrance estimates, exploring variable expressivity, and challenging pathogenicity assertions made in the clinical arena. Several studies have already started to bridge this gap by using populationdata toevaluate rare disease-causing vari-ants,19,20 refine penetrance estimates,21 and refute report Incomplete penetrance occurs when individuals with a particular disease-predisposing genetic change fail to express the corresponding disease phenotype; variable expressivity occurs when individuals carrying identical genetic changes display significant variability in terms of disease severity and/or onset Penetrance of axillary branching as a measure of percentage of branched plants. The penetrance of the mutant trait was studied by the percentage of branched plants in all the fourteen parental progenies in both 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (Table 1).The progenies of the plants with variable number of branches did not differ significantly for the penetrance of the character, indicating stable.

Penetrance and Expressivity By Leos Kral. P enetrance and expresivity are two concepts that are different yet related. They are often confused for one another. One distinguishing characteristic is that penetrance is a qualitative concept and expressivity is a quantitative concept.Simply put, penetrance refers to whether a phenotype is expressed for a particular genotype, and. expressivity). Conversely, at low penetrance where there is a percentage decrease in the rare manifestation of this character, the character can occur in its very pronounced form (strong expressivity)''.(3) A condition is said to have ''complete penetrance'' if clinical symptoms are present in al Analyses of family data published in Japan concerning 29 kindreds with 2 or more cases of retinoblastoma revealed that, in the children who received the gene from a carrier parent, both penetrance and expressivity increase with increasing degree of expressivity in the parent. The estimate for the average degree of penetrance varies from 0.7 to 0.9, depending upon the method employed. The value. Conversely, at low penetrance where there is a percentage decrease in the rare manifestation of this character, the character can occur in its very pronounced form (strong expressivity). 3 A condition is said to have complete penetrance if clinical symptoms are present in all individuals carrying the mutation and incomplete.

4.6: Exceptions to simple dominance - Biology LibreText

Inherited diseases are not always expressed in the same way in every individual that carries the same variant in a disease-causing gene. This phenomenon is known as reduced or incomplete penetrance. Variable and incomplete penetrance may explain why inherited diseases are occasionally transmitted through unaffected parents, but also why clinically healthy individuals can carry potentially. Penetrance and expressivity both have to do with genetics in science. They are used when analyzing genetics. Both the penetrance and the expressivity have to do with gene expression and are modified through varying environments and their backgrounds Answer: The differences between pleiotropy, variable expressivity, and penetrance Answer Price: 2.50 : Added: 23 April 2016, 18:41: Words: 6 words: Attachments: 1 file, 333 words Buyers: 1 person has bought this answer Get this Solution. Variable expressivity refers to the series of signs and symptoms that can occur in different people with the same genetic condition. Both incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are probably due to a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors Penetrance: Ekspresi BRCA1 dan BRCA2 gen mengembangkan kanker pada beberapa individu tetapi tidak pada orang lain sebagai akibat dari penetrasi. Ekspresivitas: Karakteristik sindrom Marfan sangat bervariasi di antara individu-individu sebagai akibat dari ekspresivitas. Kesimpulan

Penetrance and expressivity of RNAi-mediated silencing in T 2 progeny Compared with agroinfiltration ( Schob et al ., 1997 ) and other transient methods for expressing transgenes, Agrobacterium -mediated stable transformation has the advantage that progeny transgenic plants can be obtained We describe an example of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina , two genetic properties classically associated with mutations in more complex organisms, such as green plants and animals. We show that the knockouts of two TRK-related K+ transporters of this ascomycete present variability in their phenotype that cannot be attributed to. Expressivity and penetrance, the principal interrelated indicators of phenotypic variability of gene manifestation, are widely used in phenogenetics, medical genetics, and breeding of animals, plants, and microorganisms

Pleiotropy vs variable expressivity vs penetrance-contentExplain the differences between pleiotropyvariable expressivitypenetrance. A professional Academic Services Provider. We are Built on the Values of Reliability, Proffessionalism, and Integrit What does expressivity mean? The quality of being expressive. (noun) Dictionary Menu. Dictionary Thesaurus Examples Human genetic studies are impeded by inconsistent loss of genetic material, variable expressivity, and decreased penetrance Huvudskillnad - Penetrance vs Expressivity Även om vissa typer av arv i genetiken är enkla som autosomala dominerande förhållanden, kan det också finnas komplicerade typer av arv. När dominerande alleler arvs, förväntas de uttrycka ett visst drag eller särdrag som utgör ett särskilt tillstånd eller syndrom Other articles where Expressivity is discussed: consanguinity: Inheritance and gene expressivity: A major application of data on consanguinity reflects the probability that two individuals of known degree of consanguinity to another individual will share the traits of that person. This probability depends on the mode of inheritance and the degree of penetrance or expressivity o Penetrance and Expressivity • You have the alleles that should give you a phenotype, but somehow you do not have the phenotype associated with the gene product . • • You have the alleles that should give you a phenotype, but somehow you do not have the phenotype associated with the gene product

Penetrance is the percentage of animals of a specific genotype who express the phenotype associated with that underlying genotype. Expressivity refers to the degree that a particular genotype is expressed as a phenotype within an individual. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are caused by genetic and environmental variation Penetrance and expressivity. Many mutations show incomplete penetrance: not every individual with the genotype expresses the corresponding phenotype. Thus penetrance is defined as the percentage of individuals with a given allele who exhibit the phenotype associated wit many mutations show incomplete penetrance: not every individual with the. Hlavní rozdíl - Penetrance vs Expressivity. Ačkoli některé typy dědičnosti v genetice jsou jednoduché jako autosomálně dominantní podmínky, mohou existovat i komplikované typy dědičnosti. Pokud jsou dominantní alely zděděny, očekává se, že budou exprimovat určitý znak nebo soubor znaků, které představují určitý.

Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: for

Variable expressivity on the other hand is basically what severity of the disease you have. While penetrance is do you have the disease or not, variable expressivity is what level of the disease do you have. Marfan syndrome and neurofibromatosis both have 100% penetrance. This means that if you have the disease allele, you WILL express the. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity In case of incomplete penetrance it is not expressed in all the organism even when it contain the gene. The gene can be eit view the full answer. Previous question Next question. Main Difference - Penetrance vs Expressivity. Sebbene alcuni tipi di ereditarietà della genetica siano semplici come condizioni autosomiche dominanti, possono esserci anche tipi complicati di ereditarietà. Quando si ereditano gli alleli dominanti, ci si aspetta che esprimano un particolare tratto o insieme di tratti che costituiscono una. Penetrance is hoe vaak een gen uitdrukking vindt en wordt beschreven als een percentage van de populatie die het gen heeft dat het overeenkomstige fenotype ontwikkelt. Expressiviteit is de mate waarin een gen uitgedrukt wordt in een enkel individu. Het wordt ook beschreven in percentage bijvoorbeeld wanneer een gen 75% expressiviteit heeft An example of penetrance is polydactyly in humans, meaning having more digits (fingers) than usual. Expressivity is the extent to which the genes express to produce a particular phenotype

Différence entre pénétrance et expressivité - Différence

Penetrance and expressivity. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Email. Environmental effects on phenotype. Phenotype plasticity. Gene environment interaction. Polygenic inheritance and environmental effects. This is the currently selected item. Practice: Environmental effects on phenotype. Next lesson Incomplete Penetrance and Variable Expressivity The main difference between penetrance and expressivity is that penetrance is a quantitative measurement, describing the levels of expression of a particular phenotype, which corresponds to a dominant genotype whereas expressivity is the extent of a given genotype expressed at the phenotypic level minimum penetrance estimates, exploring variable expressivity and challenging pathogenicity assertions made in the clinical arena. Several studies have already started to bridge this gap by using population data to evaluate rare disease-causing variants19,20, refine penetrance estimates21 and refute reportedly pathogenic variants22,23. These.

What are reduced penetrance and variable expressivity

Qu'est-ce que Penetrance? La pénétrance est la fréquence à laquelle un gène trouve son expression dans une population. Il exprime en pourcentage de la population le gène qui développe le phénotype correspondant. S'il existe un gène à faible pénétrance, il peut ne pas être exprimé même lorsque le trait est dominant The differences of penetrance and expressivity occur because males and females have different sex hormones and because of other factors. For example, premature baldness (known as male-pattern baldness) is a non-X-linked dominant trait, but such baldness is rarely expressed in females and then usually only after menopause The four classes of expressivity observed in our genes always exhibited complete penetrance. studies cannot be explained by monogenic control with different An alternation in ploidy via MI and BIII plants increases the dosages of the dominant and recessive alleles because plants probability that apomictic genotypes with high levels of apospory. Galvenā atšķirība - Penetrance vs Expressivity Lai gan daži ģenētikas mantojuma veidi ir vienkārši kā autosomāli dominējoši apstākļi, var būt arī sarežģīti mantojuma veidi. Ja dominē dominējošās alēles, ir sagaidāms, ka tās izteiks konkrētu iezīmi vai iezīmju kopumu, kas veido konkrētu stāvokli vai sindromu

Gorlin syndrome Devi B, Behera B, Patro S, Pattnaik SS

Reduced penetrance is a factor that influences the expression of particular genetic changes. They usually affect autosomal dominant disorders but can also affect recessive traits as well (GHR, 2013) . In humans, reduced (or incomplete) penetrance occurs when individuals with a specific disease-causing mutation or genotype fails to exhibit some if not all of the disease's characteristics. This. Penetrance, expressivity, and overlapping phenotypes in heritable cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. In 1992, nearly four years before KCNQ1 (LQT1) was identified officially as the culprit gene residing within the chromosome 11p15.5 genetic locus that was closely linked with LQTS in several families,. Environmental Determinants of Expressivity and Penetrance in LRRK2 Parkinsonism. Objective/Rationale: We will investigate the role of environmental factors on likelihood of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) and the severity of the disease in parkinsonism associated with the LRRK2 gene (LRRK2 PD).. Özet - Penetrance vs Expressivity. Penetrasyon ve ifade gücü, Mendel prensiplerine meydan okuyan anormal özelliklerin ortaya çıkmasını açıklayan kavramlardır. Penetans, bir popülasyondaki belirli bir özelliğin fenotipleri ve genotipleri arasındaki yüzdedir. Bu nedenle, genotipe sahip olmasına rağmen belirli bir fenotipin bir.

Penetrance, expressivity and inheritance of axillary branching in somaclonal mutant of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Contrast penetrance and expressivity as the terms relate to phenotypic expression. select the two correct statements. a. expressivity refers to the percentage of individuals that expresses the mutant phenotype. b. expressivity is the proportion of individuals with a specific genotype who manifest that genotype at the phenotype level Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier will develop the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral. Expressivity differs from penetrance. Think of penetrance as a light switch that can only be on or off, and expressivity as a dimmer on that light switch. Though some disorders are expressed with little variation, it is worthwhile to note that the majority of autosomal dominant conditions do appear to exhibit some variation in expressivity Penetrance definition is - the proportion of individuals of a particular genotype that express its phenotypic effect in a given environment

Penetrance and expressivity in the molecular age

Determinants of penetrance and variable expressivity in monogenic metabolic conditions across 77,184 exomes. / AMP-T2D-GENES Consortia. In: Nature Communications, Vol. 12, No. 1, 3505, 12.2021. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-revie Expressivity definition is - the relative capacity of a gene to affect the phenotype of the organism of which it is a part

A case of lamin A/C mutation cardiomyopathy with overlap

How does incomplete dominance differ from incomplete

Figur 2: Forholdet mellom Penetrance og Expressivity. Forskjellen mellom Penetrance og Expressivity Definisjon. pene: Penetranse er andelen av individer av en gitt genotype, som viser fenotypen assosiert med den aktuelle genotypen. ekspressivitet: Ekspresjon er omfanget av en gitt genotype, som uttrykker på fenotypisk nivå. Betydning. pene. However, in some families a significant proportion of carriers remain unaffected (reduced penetrance), and many affected individuals have only unilateral retinoblastoma or benign retinocytomas (reduced expressivity). 7 The diseased-eye ratio, the ratio of the number of eyes containing tumors to the number of mutation carriers in a family, was.

Penetrance and Expressivity - Genetics Video Clutch Pre

Based on this disease haplotype, the penetrance of secundum ASD was 45%; the penetrance for secundum ASD or atrial septal aneurysm was 55%. The disease interval defined by the haplotypes of individuals with secundum ASD spans an 11-cM region between D5S2088 and D5S807 (Fig 4 ) Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. searching for Penetrance 141 found (295 total) alternate case: penetrance Hereditary multiple exostoses (2,159 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article manifesting it. The 96% penetrance figure comes from only one study. Other studies have observed both incomplete and variable penetrance but without calculatin

Figure: Penetrance and expressivity (1) - MSD Manual

(2001). Penetrance and Expressivity of Genes Involved in the Development of Epilepsy in the Genetically Epilepsy-Prone Rat (GEPR) Journal of Neurogenetics: Vol. 15, No. 3-4, pp. 233-244 EXPRESSIVITY OF TRAITS AND ALTERNATIVE SPLICING : CASE STUDY OF AXINFu MUTATION IN MICE A. Ruvinsky and W.D. Flood Genetics, SRSA, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia INTRODUCTION The majority of mutations demonstrate variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance and exact causes of these phenomena are usually unknown

At least 57% of the PCG nonpenetrant individuals examined clinically were affected with JOAG or POAG to varying degrees, and overall penetrance of affected CYP1B1 genotypes with respect to glaucoma may be more than 90%. These findings suggest that affected CYP1B1 genotypes exhibit variable expressivity rather than nonpenetrance Find 12 ways to say EXPRESSIVITY, along with antonyms, related words, and example sentences at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus Complete (100%) penetrance means that everyone who has the genotype also displays a phenotype. Incomplete penetrance just means that not everyone who has the gene shows the disease. Expressivity is a measure of severity, meaning that even if two people have the same gene (and it's 100% penetrant), one might show many more symptoms than another Reduced penetrance and variable expressivity are factors that influence the effects of particular genetic changes. These factors usually affect disorders that have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, although they are occasionally seen in disorders with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern expressivity the degree to which a particular gene exhibits itself in the PHENOTYPE of an organism, once it has undergone PENETRANCE. Thus, for example, a penetrant baldness gene in man can have a wide range of expressivity, from thinning hair to complete lack of hair

Assessing the Pathogenicity, Penetrance, and Expressivity. Expressivity is measured only when there is 100 % penetrance. These interactions help prepare these children for occupations that require greater expressivity. Social expressivity includes liveliness in voice, smiling, etc. By keeping an emotional distance, Stravinsky achieves objective expressivity. Ms The terms penetrance and expressivity are also useful to describe the relationship between certain genotypes and their phenotypes. Penetrance is the proportion of individuals (usually expressed as a percentage) with a particular genotype that display a corresponding phenotype (Figure 3.14). Because all pea plants that are homozygous for the allele for white flowers (e.g. aa in Figure 3.3. lead to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity tic events are the cause of variability in this system. in the context of a multicellular organism, these unicel- Although potassium is known to regulate morphogene-lular yeasts are not well suited to follow the phenotypic sis in Neurospora crassa and other eukaryotes (Shaw an expressivity - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free

Oral Pathology Exam 3 Odontogenic Cysts Flashcards - CramA painless lump in the arm | The BMJ